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Wetenschappelijke onderbouwing

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Er zijn allerlei modellen voor formatief toetsen. Denk bijvoorbeeld aan de 5 strategieën van Dylan Wiliam (2011) of de 3 kernvragen van Hattie en Timperley (2009). Waarom dan nog weer een nieuwe FE-cyclus?

Wij wilden echt grip proberen te krijgen op wat DOET die docent in de klas als deze formatief evalueren vorm geeft. De bestaande modellen gaven ons niet genoeg concrete handvatten om dit te bekijken. Om goed te kunnen duiden wat we in de literatuur vonden over de FE-activiteiten die docenten in de klas gebruikten en bovendien de variatie hierin zichtbaar te maken, hadden we toch een nieuw model nodig. Hiervoor hebben wij allerlei bestaande modellen vergeleken en op basis hiervan onze FE-cyclus gemaakt. De onderbouwing van het ontstaan van de FE-cyclus vind je in het kort in dit filmpje en meer uitgebreid in het NRO eindrapport.

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De FE cyclus bestaat uit vijf fasen. Deze vijf fasen worden in samenhang uitgevoerd om een krachtig FE-proces te bereiken. We zeggen vaak: de fasen moeten in alignment zijn. De kern van de FE-cyclus vind je in deze animatie.

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De FE-cyclus is ontwikkeld vanuit het perspectief van de docent. Natuurlijk is de rol van de leerling/student heel belangrijk bij formatief evalueren, maar de docent is de cruciale schakel. De docent richt het proces in, en creëert de leeromgeving en geeft richting aan de leeractiviteiten. Bijvoorbeeld: als je peer feedback wilt inzetten, dan zal de docent een werkvorm of procedure moeten ontwerpen of inzetten om dit op gang te brengen. Leerlingen/studenten kunnen dit niet uit zichzelf, en hebben begeleiding en hulpmiddelen nodig om goed peer feedback te leren geven.

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In tegenstelling tot veel andere modellen, maken wij expliciet onderscheid tussen fase 4 “communiceren over resultaten met leerlingen” en fase 5 “ het zetten van een concrete vervolgstap”. Dit onderscheid heeft twee redenen: 1)  in de literatuur vonden wij heel geregeld dat er wel feedback wordt gegeven (fase 4), maar dat er toch niets gebeurt. De vervolgstap blijft uit. 2) Het nemen van een vervolgstap kan gedaan worden door de leerling/student, maar ook door de docent. Een leerling/student kan een andere leerstrategie kiezen, maar een docent kan ook vervolgonderwijs aanpassen. In de FE cyclus maken we expliciet onderscheid tussen deze twee vervolgacties. Zowel in de literatuur, als in de praktijkervaring die we inmiddels met de FE cyclus hebben opgedaan, blijkt het daadwerkelijk nemen en goed vormgeven van deze vervolgstap de moeilijkste fase in het formatieve proces.

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Meer weten?

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Uitgebreid rapport met veel onderbouwing, maar ook heel veel voorbeelden van hoe docenten (van allerlei opleidingsniveaus en vakgebieden) de 5 fasen van de FE cyclus vormgeven. Gebaseerd op 106 wetenschappelijke studies.

Gulikers, J. & Baartman, L. (2017). Doelgericht professionaliseren. Formatief toetsen met effect ! Wat DOET de docent in de klas? Eindrapport NRO-PPO overzichtsstudie dossiernummer 405-15-722.

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  1. Toets! Magazine : Gulikers, J. & Baartman, L. (2017). Effectief formatief toetsen implementeren in de klas. Toets Magazine!, 9, 22.
  2. Artikel Didactief: Gulikers, J. & Baartman, L. (2017). Doorpakken met formatief toetsen. Didactief, 9, 24-25.
  3. Special Formatief Evalueren in VO-vakblad van 12-18 (Jan. 2019). Allerlei voorbeelden, artikeltjes, werkvormen en ervaringen uit het Verdiepingsleernetwerk Formatief Evalueren.
  4. Kort artikel over een belangrijke misconceptie: Gulikers, J. & Baartman, L. (2020). Klopt dit wel? Formatief evalueren is hetzelfde als feedback geven, en veel feedback geven is goed?  Examens, 4, 54-57
  5. Veugen, M., Gulikers, J., & den Brok, P. (2021). We agree on what we see. Teachers and student perceptions of formative assessment. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 70, online first publication.

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Gulikers, J & Baartman, L (2017, feb. 17).  Effectieve formatieve toetspraktijk in de klas: wat DOET de docent. Kennisdeeldag NRO overzichtstudie. Wageningen Universiteit, Wageningen.

Gulikers, J & Baartman, L. (2017, feb 17). Wat behoeft nog echt professionalisering? Poster naar aanleiding van NRO overzichtsstudie ‘wat DOET de docent in de klas’. Wageningen Universiteit/Hogeschool Utrecht.

Gulikers, J. (2018, nov. 21). De formatieve cyclus, wat doet de docent en hoe ziet dat eruit in de klas? Presentatie op Conferentie Formatief Toetsen Leernetewrk Formatief Evalueren. Bunnik; Nederland.

Veugen, M., Gulikers, J, Baartman, L., & den Brok, P (2019, nov). How do secondary school teachers use the FE cycle in their classroom? Presentatie op de EAPRIL Conferentie, Tallin; Estland.

Baartman, L., Boumans, M., & Gulikers, J. (2019, nov). Teachers’ formative assessment activities in vocational education. Presentatie op de EAPRIL Conferentie Tallinn; Estland.

Gulikers, J. & Baartman, L. (2021, feb 1). Q&A Webinar Formatief Evalueren. Lancering van de landingspagina.

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fase 1

Poster fase 1

Poster fase 2

Poster fase 3

Poster fase 4

Poster fase 5

Alle vijf posters samen vind je hier

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Animatie 1: De totale FE cyclus: wat is formatief evalueren, de vijf fasen en de rol van de leerling en docent hierin?

Animatie 2: Fase 1 “verwachtingen verhelderen” verder uitgelegd

Animatie 3: Fase 2&3 “reacties ontlokken en analyseren” verder uitgelegd

Fase 4 en 5 volgen!

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